Oral cavity tumor resection in Iran
The mouth, due to the several functions, is apt to many diseases and factors that may cause tumors and tumor-like lesions, benign or malignant, large or small, situ or metastasis. Oral cancer is considered a serious threat to general public health, where these tumors forms about 85% of the tumors of the head and neck (excluding the tumors of the brain). Some of these lesions may threaten and prevent the natural functions of life (eating, drinking, chewing), which need an urgent emergency that may not be available in your country or may cost a large sum of money, being exact and complicated surgery. However, Iran offers you an exceptional chance to have your surgery done in a well-equipped hospital and at hands of experienced surgeons like Dr. Saeedi at an affordable cost. Please continue reading to know more about oral cavity tumor resection in Iran with Dr. Saeedi.
What are the kinds of oral cavity tumors?
There is two main kinds of tumors:
Oral cavity benign tumors
They arise as a result of many factors (trauma, irritation, bacterial or viral factors… etc.). These benign tumors are not invasive, slowly growing, limited in volume and does not generally affect the life itself. They include many tumors such as fibroma, papilloma, pyogenic, granuloma, lipoma, hemangioma, lymphangioma. However, fibroma is the oral cavity most common benign tumor.
Surgery is the main method for benign tumor treatment by removing the tumor and maintaining the adjacent tissues.
Oral cavity malignant tumors
There are three types of malignant oral cavity tumor classification:
- According to histologic type: squamous cell carcinoma is about 86,3% , verrucous carcinoma 2%, adenoma-carcinoma 5,9%, carcinoma-nos 1,5%, lymphoma 1,5%, kaposis sarcoma 1,5% and other kinds 1,3%.
- According to oral cavity tumor staging
The First stage: the size of the tumor is equal to or less than 2cm and the oral cavity cancer depth of invasion is equal to or less than 5 cm.
The Second stage: the size of the tumor is equal to or less than 4 cm and the depth of invasion is equal to or less than 10cm.
The Third stage: the size of the tumor is more than 4 cm and the depth of invasion is equal to or less than 20 cm.
The Fourth stage: the tumor is a very advanced local disease, but the invasion may reach the skull base or encases the internal carotid artery.
- According to the affected lymph nodes, relating to the degree of tumor advancing and how many nodes are affected in the site and on the same side of the neck.
What are the causes of oral cavity tumor?
There are many causes for benign tumors such as bacterial and viral inflammations. While traumatic tumors as a result of malocclusion, dentures, and bridges may form a considerable rate of these tumors, but most of them are curable by medicine treatment or by removing the cause of trauma. However, when the tumor reaches a large size that it may prevent the essential functions, oral cavity tumor surgery will be the best option.
The only option for the treatment of some other benign tumor is surgery, while the most important matter is that malignant tumors in the oral cavity really threaten the quality of life as well as life itself.
Cancer happens inside the cell, it is a change in the DNA of the cell that gives orders to the oral cavity tumour cell to continue growing and dividing when the normal cells live for a certain period and die after that. The tumor may spread to the adjacent and nearby areas or to the other part of the body.
Mouth cancer generally starts in the squamous cell that forms the base cells of the mucosa in the oral cavity. For this reason, the most common oral cavity cancer prevalence is squamous cell carcinoma. It is not clear why and how the mutation happens, but studies and clinical experiences indicate some oral cavity cancer risk factors that increase the possibility of cancer, including:
- All the form of tobacco use
- Over drinking alcohol
- Over lip-exposure to the sun
- Human papillomavirus (HPV): the infection with this virus rises the risk of oral cavity cancer from HPV, especially for oropharynx tumor
- A low Immune system
Oral cavity tumors symptoms
Mouth tumor widespread symptoms include:
- A sore in the mouth or the lips that do not heal by the usual treatment
- A white or reddish spot inside the mouth
- Movable teeth
- A lump inside the mouth
- Mouth pain
- Ear pain
- Pain and difficulties in swallowing.
How is oral cancer diagnosed?
Your dentist or your doctor will examine the whole oral cavity, the lips, tongue, the floor of the mouth, gums, hard palate, throat, cheek, and lymph node in the neck. He/she may ask for help from an ENT special to validate his/her diagnosis.
If they discover any suspicious lump, a biopsy may be taken from the oral cavity tumor and send to the pathological anatomy lab. The final diagnosis depends on the result of oral cavity cancer pathological analysis. The doctor may ask you to undergo a test for tumor markers of oral cavity to detect if the tumor is a primary or secondary one.
Oral squamous cell carcinoma forms about 90% of oral cavity cancer, the clinical features of this type of oral cavity cancer seem as an erytholeukoplastic area without symptoms, and in advanced stages, it will be a rigid painful ulcer with an irregular edge. This is while other oral cavity cancer growth rate (such as lymphoma, sarcoma and metastasis) is much faster than oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Other imaging will be necessary such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, PET scans to detect the extent of the lesion.
What is oral cavity tumors surgery?
Oral cavity tumor surgery is the procedure in which the surgeon removes the tumor in cases of benign tumor and removes the entire oral cavity cancerous tumor and some of the intact adjacent tissues and some of the lymph nodes in cases of the malignant tumor.
Why opt for oral cavity tumor resection in Iran?
Iran boasts advanced hospitals and clinics, and highly experienced surgeons for oral cavity tumor treatment. Besides, the affordable prices make the country a preferred destination for medical treatments for many people from all around the world.
Why have oral cavity tumor resection in Iran with Dr. Saeedi?
Dr. Masoumeh Saeedi is one of the most prominent ENT surgeons and otolaryngologists in Iran. For 15 years, she has performed thousands of distinct complex surgeries to Iranian patients and to patients from all around the world. As a result of her distinction, she is an associate professor of ENT in one of the best medical universities in Tehran.
As well, she has a fellowship in ear and skull base surgery and she has passed many courses about the new related technologies of her specialization in medically developed countries such as Germany, France and Portugal among others. Please feel free and contact us now for a free consultation about oral cavity tumor resection in Iran with Dr. Saeedi through the Doctor’s social media or this web site.
Who is to undergo oral cavity surgery?
If the patient has an oral cavity (malignant) tumor, surgery will be the most treatment modality. It may be accompanied by radiation and chemotherapy. In small cancer, radiation may be used alone, and it may be used with chemotherapy to reduce the size for some large tumor before surgery.
Preparation for oral cavity tumor resection surgery
The surgeon must know all about your health problems and the medicine you take. Like any other surgery, you may be asked to:
- Stop blood thinner several days before the surgery.
- Stop drinking alcohol and smoking for a while before the surgery.
- Have some blood tests, X rays image, CT scan, MRI, and/or cardio exam.
- Stop eating and drinking from the midnight of the day of surgery.
Oral cavity tumor surgery: How is it done?
Surgery aims to remove the entire lesion and some of marginal intact tissues as well some of the nearby affected lymph nodes to reduce the probability of the existence of any remaining tumor.
There are many types of procedures to remove the oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers according to their site, depth, and stage:
The surgeon removes the tumor in the oral cavity through the mouth. This approach is used for stage (T1 and T2) of the mobile tongue, the floor of the mouth, buccal mucosa, and upper or lower gum.
Lower cheek flap approach
In this approach, the surgeon makes a vertical incision in the midline of the lower lip to reach a little below the lower edge of the mandible. Another horizontal incision is made parallel to the edge of the lower mandible until about the triangle of the mandible. This flap enables the surgeon to eradicate large tumors of any part of the oral cavity jaw cancer and in the posterolateral part of the oral cavity.
If the lesion is advanced in the tongue, the surgeon may eradicate the whole tongue or a part of it.
There are many other approaches like upper cheek flap and visor flap approach. In other cases, the surgeon perform oral cavity cancer resection through a cervical incision or an external skin incision such as the tumors of oral cavity salivary glands (parotid, submandibular gland).
After large oral cavity tumor removal, the surgeon may reconstruct the area and try to maintain and restore the essential functions. Oral cavity cancer surgery time depends on the size, grade and depth of the tumor but it may take several hours in resecting large oral cavity tumors.
Oral cavity surgery recovery time: What to expect?
Oral cavity cancer surgery recovery time depends on the stage, size and location of the tumor. In a small tumor of the front part of the oral cavity, you may need to stay in the hospital several hours or one night after surgery. The surgeon will provide you with a prescription and some instructions. However, in a large surgery you may need to stay in the hospital for several days according to the extent of surgery. Generally, you need a few weeks of recovery to feel better.
Keep your mouth wet by water. Your diet may include high-protein food such as fish, poultry, eggs and cheese. Plenty of fluids (lemon-flavor) is recommended, especially for the patients under chemotherapy or who have a dry sore.
The patient may suffer difficulties in speaking and swallowing after partial glossectomy.
Further reconstructive procedures and prosthetic fittings may be needed after the surgery, including bone reconstruction.
Pros and cons of oral cavity surgery
The oral cavity cancer chance of survival for five years is about 57%, but it may reach 70%-90% if the tumor was detected in the first and second stages.
Risk and complication of oral cavity surgery
There are some general risks (like any other surgery) such as infection, blood clots, anesthesia reaction, and pneumonia.
Oral cavity surgery includes a wide range of procedures, from simple preoral operations that nearly have little side effects (some pain that can be treated with analgesic) to large and complex surgeries that may cause serious complications and risks, such as wound breakdown, problem with eating, breathing and speaking, disfiguring, death in little cases through the operation or shortly after it.
The surgeon may remove some of the mandible or maxillary bone or other facial bone, and reconstruct the site of operation, which may disfigure the face of the patient. However, an experienced surgeon like Dr. Saeedi may perform the surgery without or with minimal disfiguration.
In cases of partial resection of the tongue, the speech will be unclear and there some difficulties in swallowing, while the patient needs a rehabilitation program to regain swallowing and speaking if the surgeon removes all the tongue.
Cost of oral cavity tumor resection in Iran with Dr. Saeedi
The cost of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma treatment in U.S.A reach $80,000. You can get oral cavity tumor resection in Iran at a fraction of this tremendous sum. You may get an excellent medical service at hands of experienced surgeons like Dr. saeedi with a little sum due to the Iranian cheap currency. Feel free to contact us to have a free online consultation and price quote on oral cavity tumor resection in Iran with Dr. Saeedi.
Frequently asked questions about oral cavity tumor resection
Is oral cavity cancer genetic?
Specialists claim that most of the oral cavity tumors do not indicate inherited mutation. They believe that by avoiding bad habits, following good oral hygiene, and by early detecting the tumor, oral cavity cancer prognosis will be rather satisfying. Yet, the causes of some oral cavity tumors are still unknown.
Why oral cavity cancer happens?
Cancer happens as a result of DNA mutation inside the cell, but why this mutation occurs? This is still unknown. However, trauma, irritation, bacterial and viral factors may play an important role in this mutation. Oncologists refer to some risk factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, sun exposure, chemical material contact …etc that may enhance these changes.
What is the best modality in treating oral cavity tumor?
The main oral cavity tumor treatment modality is surgical resection. Sometimes oral cavity tumor radiation therapy may be sufficient. However, oral cavity tumor radiotherapy may leave long term effects. In advanced cases, radiation and chemotherapy will be necessary along with surgery.