Endoscopic resection of hypophysis tumor in Iran
The pituitary gland is often called the master gland. Due to its essential functions or due to the nearby sensitive tissues, its tumors may cause blindness, heart troubles or other dangerous symptoms. Therefore, it often needs an urgent surgery treatment to remove the tumors that arise on it. However, its site in the base of the brain requires a highly experienced team of surgeons to do the complicated operation, and a very large sum. For these reasons, many people consider having the surgery abroad. If this is your case, we advise you to consider having endoscopic resection of hypophysis tumor in Iran with Dr. Saeedi, the distinguished ENT, head and neck surgeon and otolaryngologist in Tehran.
What is the pituitary gland?
The pituitary gland is an endocrine gland. It locates in the base of the brain, in sella turcica. Its size is about the pea, and consists of three distinct lobes. By supervision and coordination with the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland secretes many essential hormones that control most of the other endocrine glands and subsequently most body activities. These body activities include growth, blood pressure, some sides of pregnancy and childbirth, breast milk production, sex organ function, thyroid gland function, metabolic transmutation of food into energy, osmolarity regulation in the body, water balance through the control of water by kidneys, temperature regulation, pain relief, etc.
What is the hypophysis tumor?
Hypophysis tumor is an abnormal growth that happens in the pituitary gland so it secretes more or fewer hormones that affect the body and its functions. Another type of hypophysis tumor is the nonfunctioning tumor that may press the optic apparatus.
Endoscopic excision of pituitary tumor or microscopic resection of a pituitary tumor is the first option in treating large nonfunctioning adenomas to stop the pressure on the optic apparatus, and most of the functioning tumors, except the prolactinoma, by removing the tumors that begin to grow in the gland.
Pituitary tumor kinds and types
Most of pituitary tumors are benign (noncancerous) growths (adenomas). It doesn’t spread to the other parts of the body. Some invasive pituitary tumors- though they are benign- invade the nearby tissues like the sinus or bone. In some little cases, it may be cancerous, but the rate is about 4-7 per 100000 clinically.
There are many kinds of pituitary tumors classifications:
First, according to the secreted hormone, such as prolactinoma tumor that secretes prolactin
Second, according to its size that may be less than 1cm (microadenomas) and more than 1cm (macroadenomas), if the tumor is bigger than 4cm, it will be called giant adenomas.
Third, by histology according to the staining quality as chromophobic and chromophilic tumors.
Hypophysis tumor symptoms
The symptoms will appear when the tumor gives more or less hormone or presses on its nearby tissues. The symptoms of pituitary tumor pressure may be headache or vision loss, especially loss of peripheral vision. However, some other symptoms may be due to the deficiency of hormone, like nausea and vomiting, weakness, feeling cold, less frequent or no menstrual periods, sexual dysfunction, etc. while the excessive secrete of hormones may cause many other symptoms. If a person has three or more of the following symptoms, this may indicate that he/she has a pituitary tumor:
- Vision problems (blurred or doubled vision, drooping eyelid)
- Headaches in the forehead area
- Nausea or vomiting
- Impaired sense of smell
- Sexual dysfunction
- Growth problem
- Unexpected weight gain
- Easy bruising
- Aching joints
- Carpal tunnel syndrome
- Disputed menstruation
- Early menopause
- Muscle weakness
- Galactorrhea (spontaneous breast milk flow not associated with childbirth or nursing of an infant)
Pituitary tumor complications
Most of the pituitary tumors are benign, but some of them cause dangerous side effects. Blindness is one of the most serious complications. When the tumor presses the nearby optic nerves, usually the loss of vision happens very gradually.
Another complication is insipidus diabetes that results from the lack of a vasopressin hormone that regulates the body water balance, making the patient suffer from constant thirst, and frequent urine.
In the case of hormones imbalance because of the tumor, the patient needs to take these hormones for the rest of his life.
Another serious complication is a pituitary tumor apoplexy, in which sudden bleeding of the tumor happens. It needs an urgent treatment- usually corticosteroids or surgery. It causes a severe headache and vision problems.
If you have any such complication, you should consult your doctor to detect the fault. Nevertheless, many people with pituitary tumors do not suffer any problem.
What is hypophysis tumor resection surgery?
Hypophysis tumor resection surgery is a special operation that aims to remove certain types of pituitary tumors that start to grow in the gland to prevent further complication. It is called transnasal resection of the pituitary tumor or transsphenoidal resection of pituitary tumors. It is done under general anesthesia.
Surgery is the main option in treating pituitary tumors since it corrects about 70%- 95% of the situations in case of microadenoma and about 40%-86% of the situations in cases of macroadenoma.
Why opt for endoscopic resection of hypophysis tumor in Iran?
Endoscopic surgery is the most effective way for the resection of hypophysis tumors and costs less than microscopic resection.
There are many reasons to choose Iran for your surgery, including the high quality and good equipment of their hospitals and the high level and good experience of their doctors, as well as the good prices for surgery and accommodation due to their cheap currency, and no waiting time, not to mention their historical, culture, regional ruins, and charming nature.
Why to have endoscopic resection of hypophysis tumor in Iran with Dr. saeedi?
Dr. Masoumeh Saeedi obtained her fellowship in Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery more than 12 years ago and ranked first in the country in the entrance examination. Because of her distinction, she was accepted to become an associate professor at Baqiatollah University of Medical Sciences in Tehran at the age of only 33 years.
Dr. Saeedi has undergone many specialized courses to deepen her science and experience in countries like Germany, France, Portugal, South Korea and Malaysia. She has performed more than 5,000 successful surgeries in addition to teaching at the university, which keeps her up to date with the latest developments and technologies in her field of specialization.
If you undergo endoscopic resection of hypophysis tumor in Iran with Dr. Saeedi, you can guarantee that you are in safe and expert hands and that you will have the surgery in the best hospitals in Tehran because Dr. Saeedi is strict about choosing a hospital to ensure her patients receive the best healthcare. Just send us a message on social media to have a free specialized online consultation on endoscopic resection of hypophysis tumor in Iran with Dr. Saeedi.
Cost of endoscopic resection of hypophysis tumor in Iran with Dr. Saeedi
The average cost of endoscopic resection of hypophysis tumor in the U.S.A.is about $19,000. This cost does not include all the tests, imaging, and consultation before entering the hospital. It is a large sum, and many patients could not afford it. The costs of the procedure, including the tests, consultations, doctors’ fees in Iran is much less than this amount. Please contact us to have a free specialized consultation and quote on the endoscopic resection of hypophysis tumor in Iran with Dr. Saeedi.
Who is to undergo endoscopic pituitary tumor removal surgery?
The patients they ought to undergo pituitary tumor removal surgery are:
- Individuals who have hormone-secreting tumors that disturb the balance of hormone in the body.
- Individuals who have a nonhormone-secreting tumor that may cause visual disturbances and headaches.
- Cases of cancerous tumors.
Preparation for pituitary tumor surgery
After the surgical team has explained the benefits and risks of surgery and taken the consent of the patient for a procedure, you may need to:
- Undergo some blood tests
- Have heart rhythm test.
- Have chest X-ray.
- Stop blood thinner medicine several days before the operation and other medicine if the doctor asks to do that.
- Stop eating and drinking from the night before the surgery.
Endoscopic resection of hypophysis tumor: How is it done?
The surgeon inserts a rigid tube that has a microscope, light and camera through the nose or through a small incision under the upper lip to reach the tumor across the sphenoid sinus. The camera is attached with a television screen that enables the surgeon to watch the work and be able to insert other special instruments within the tube to remove the tumor.
Pituitary tumor surgery recovery time: What to expect after endoscopic surgery?
You need to stay in the hospital for one night at least in high-dependency unit for monitoring consciousness level, blood pressure, visual acuity, sodium level, urinary output, CSF leak facial numbness… for evaluating pituitary functions. Your diet will be fluids. The nurse will help you with your needs, and you will be asked to walk as soon as you can on the same day.
Some other examinations like visual acuity, extraocular movement, and sensation to the forehead and infra orbital cheek should to be done daily.
The surgeon may discharge you from the hospital according to your situation after one day or more and he/she will provide you with the necessary medicine and ask you to restrict your hard activities. You may need repeated visits to your surgeon and endocrinologist and have visual testing, as well as repeated MRI until the healing time in 6-8 weeks.
You have to keep in touch with your doctor in case of an emergency like fever, nausea, vomiting, permanent headache, bleeding and watery discharge of the nose, or increased urination.
Pros and cons of pituitary tumor operation
As with any surgery, the pituitary tumor operation has more benefits and less dangerous side effects.
Benefits of endoscopic resection of hypophysis tumor
The resection of hypophysis corrects about 70%- 95% of the situations in case of microadenoma and about 40%-86% of the situation in cases of macroadenoma.
It also restores the hormonal balance, regains the visual acuity, and diminishes the headache and others symptoms related to pituitary gland tumors.
Risks and complications of pituitary tumor resection surgery
There are many risks associated with the resection surgery, including hypopituitarism, diabetes insipidus (DI), CSF leak, pneumocephalus, meningitis, injury to the optic apparatus, diplopia, hypoesthesia of the forehead or infraorbital cheek, pseudoaneurysms and/or stroke. Rhinologic risks may include epistaxis, hyposmia, nasal crusting, and sinusitis.
However, the most dangerous complication is carotid artery injury that may cause death. The mortality may reach 0.6% according to one study, while elsewhere the mortality rate of transsphenoidal surgery in the elderly was as low as 0%.
Frequently asked questions about endoscopic resection of hypophysis tumor
Can pituitary tumors cause sinus problems?
Some kinds of pituitary tumors are invasive tumors that may invade the sinus and cause sinusitis effects.
Is pituitary tumor surgery dangerous?
Generally, it is not dangerous. However, like any surgery, it may have some complications as mentioned earlier. An experienced surgery team may lessen the undesirable side effects.
Can pituitary tumors cause ear pain, dizziness, or vertigo?
The pituitary tumor can cause ear pain due to the dual innervation with many remote anatomic cite, and cause dizziness due to the hormonal disturbance.
Is pituitary tumor surgery considered outpatient?
No. The patient must remain under supervision for one day at least, while some patient need to stay many days according to the size of the tumor or their general health or age.
Can pituitary tumors cause tinnitus and headaches?
Headache is one of the most common symptoms of the pituitary tumor, while tinnitus is less frequent. The inner ear is far from the pituitary tumor, but tinnitus may be caused due to the hormonal disturbance.
Does pituitary tumor show on CT scan?
The pituitary tumor shows on CT scan. However, MRI is preferable for pituitary tumor diagnosis. In some patients with pacemakers or metallic implants in the brain or eyes, MRI cannot be used, so the CT scan is used.
Does pituitary tumors cause weight gain?
When the pituitary tumor spurs the adrenal glands to produce more cortisol, it causes weight gain (especially in the abdomen and neck), loss of muscle mass in the legs and arms, muscle weakness, depression and difficulty with concentration and memory. These symptoms are known as “Cushing’s Disease”